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In 10-12 by Guru (7.4k)  

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by Guru (7.4k)  


Background information:

  • Human migration is the movement of people from one place to another
  • The patterns of movement reflect the current conditions of the world and the cultural landscapes
  • The first migrants were ancient humans who originated in Africa and spread to Eurasia 
    • Most likely these migrants were driven by climate and food factors

Types of human migration:

  • Internal migration: moving within a country or a city
  • External migration: moving to a different country or continent 
  • Emigration: leaving one country so that you can move to another one
  • Immigration: moving into a new country
  • Return migration: moving back to where you moved from originally
  • Seasonal migration: moving to another place because of climate conditions or labor response

Reasons for migration:

  • Lack of basic necessities 
  • War & terrorism 
  • Human rights violations
  • Nature disasters 
  • State of the economy
  • People can also move to another place because of a better climate or more work opportunities 

Check out this video by CrashCourse to find out more! 

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by Guru (7.4k)  


  • Gender equality is a fundamental human right and also a foundation for a peaceful world
  • By denying equal rights for women and girls, we are denying half of the population in earth to live their life like they want to live it
  • Gender equality is getting better:
    • More girls are going to school
    • Early, arranged marriages are not that in common
    • More women are in positions of leadership
    • Laws are also being reformed to advance gender equality
  • Many challenges still do exist:
    • Social norms that are not gender equal 
    • Women are still underrepresented at all levels of political leadership
    • Also 1 in every 5 women and girls are experiencing sexual violence


  1. By ending discrimination against women and girls
  2. By ending violence towards women and girls
  3. By eliminating forced marriages
  4. By promoting shared domestic responsibilities 
  5. By ensuring full participation in decision-making 
  6. By ensuring equal rights to economic resources

Learn more and watch this video by WorldFish

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by Guru (7.4k)  


  • The definition of colonialism is: control by one power over a dependent area or people
    • Occurs when one nation dominates another, conquering it and exploiting it while forcing its own language and cultural values to the population
  • By the year 1914 most of the countries in the world had been colonized by Europeans at some point
  • The concept of colonialism is close to imperialism


  • In antiquity colonialism was practiced in: Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and Ancient Egypt 
    • All of these extended their borders into surrounding ones to increase their own power
  • Modern colonialism began in the 15th century, when Portugal began to look for new trade routes and civilizations outside Europe
    • Soon the Portuguese had conquered for example Madeira and Cape Verde
  • In 1492 Christopher Columbus began to look for a route to India and China 
  • In 1880 most European nations focused on taking over African lands
    • The conquers were violent and even barbaric although the colonial powers justified their conquests by saying that they have legal and religious obligation to take over the land 

Learn more and check this video by The Pacifist

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by Guru (7.4k)  


  • The creation of human rights can be held as one of the greatest achievements by the United Nations
  • One factor behind the development of human rights is the pursuit of freedom for slaves, women and workers
  • Human rights are the basic rights that belong to all of us in the world 
  • They apply to everyone, regardless of where you are from, what nationality, color, religion, language or ethnic origin do you represent
  • Human rights can never be taken away, but they can be restricted (if you break the law or in case of national security)

Some of the basic human rights:

  • Right to life
  • Freedom of speech
  • You have the right express and have opinions 
  • You have the right to get educated

Why are human rights needed?

  • They help us to create the kind of society we want to live in
  • Understanding the human rights helps us to promote justice and everybody's well-being 

Take a look at this video by TED-Ed and learn even more!

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by Guru (7.4k)  


  • Dictatorship is a form of government in which only one person (or a small group) possess power without any limitation
  • Dictators usually use extensive force or fraud to gain political power, which they maintain by intimidating, terror or suppressing basic civil liberties
  • In the 19th and 20th centuries countries were either democracies or under one dictator 
  • Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin are examples of modern totalitarian dictatorships 
    • Crucial elements of both these were:
      • The identification of the state with a single party with a charismatic leader
      • Use of an official ideology 
      • The use of terror and propaganda to suppress opposition
      • They also controlled economy and individual behavior

Extend your knowledge and watch this video by CrashCourse 

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