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2 lessons
Lesson created In 7-9 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  

Consequences of floods:

A flood occurs when a river bursts its banks and the water spills onto the floodplain of a river. 

Floods can cause damage to homes and possessions, as well as disrupt communities normal way of life. 

Floods can cause:

  • A loss of life: Floods can cause death and injury. People can get trapped in their houses by the quick-rising waters
  • Damage to property: As floodwaters rise they can flow into low-lying properties. The river will be carrying huge amounts of pollution and silt that will destroy floors, walls and any electrical gear.
  • Pollution: Floods will wash chemicals and sewage into the water. The contaminated water will spread quickly over an area – causing public health issues and killing fish.
  • Destruction of habitat: Floods will destroy places where river animals and fish might have breeding grounds. Even slight changes to river temperature and water patterns can upset natural ecosystems.

Consequences of droughts:

  • Droughts endanger lives through thirst, hunger and the spread of diseases. 
  • Reduction in food production. 
  • Droughts and famines have other geographical impacts such as people that migrate to a new home. This can put pressure on resources in neighbouring communities. 

Consequences of earthquakes:

  • Buildings might collapse and homes might be destroyed.
  • People may be killed or injured. 
  • Transport links might be disrupted. 
  • Communication lines might break. 
  • Basic services might be destroyed (electricity and water supply)
  • Shops and businesses might be destroyed. 
  • Economies might slow. 

+2 votes
2 lessons
Lesson created In 4-6 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  


Both resources and energy allow us to flourish on planet Earth. But, what exactly are resources, and why are they so important? Check out this video: 


The simplest definition of energy is "the ability to do work". Energy is how things change and move. It's everywhere around us and takes all sorts of forms. It takes energy to cook food, to drive to school, and to jump in the air. Energy consumption just means how much energy we are using each year to power our houses, factories, businesses and vehicles.

Different forms of Energy
Energy can take a number of different forms. Here are some examples:

  • Chemical - Chemical energy comes from atoms and molecules and how they interact.
  • Electrical - Electrical energy is generated by the movement of electrons.
  • Gravitational - Large objects such as the Earth and the Sun create gravity and gravitational energy.
  • Heat - Heat energy is also called thermal energy. It comes from molecules of different temperatures interacting.
  • Light - Light is called radiant energy. The Earth gets a lot of its energy from the light of the Sun.
  • Motion - Anything that is moving has energy. This is also called kinetic energy.
  • Nuclear - Huge amounts of nuclear energy can be generated by splitting atoms.
  • Potential - Potential energy is energy that is stored. 

Energy is taken from two types of energy source:

  • Renewable energy sources = resources that can be easily replaced or renewed (will not run out – sustainable). These include- Hydro Electric Energy, Wind Energy, Solar energy, Geothermal energy, and Biofuels
  • Non-renewable energy sources= resources that can be used up and cannot be replaced (will run out). These include – Coal energy, Natural Gas energy, Oil energy, and Nuclear energy.

+1 vote
2 lessons
Lesson created In 4-6 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  


Urbanization is the movement of an increasing percentage of the population into urban areas.

Access the lesson here, to learn more about urbanization, why it occurs and some consequences of urbanization: https://www.canva.com/design/DAEA5G-AAzQ/xvGSybbqnF0rG7cH__wTmQ/view

+3 votes
2 lessons
Lesson created In 4-6 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  

Our economic growth and development are leading to an increase of environmental damage and risk. Countries are turning to more sustainable ways of economic growth and development to decrease our environmental impact. 

What is Sustainable Development?

Economic development without conducting any harm to the environment or depletion of natural resources. Sustainable development aims to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. 

How do we impact our Environment?

How can you help care for the Environment?

Protecting Our Planet Starts with You

+3 votes
2 lessons
Lesson created In 7-9 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  

REASONS for climate change                                      

Human activity such as: 

  • Increased use of fossil fuels (oil, coal and gas)
  • Increasingly intensive agriculture which emits greenhouse gases
    • Carbon dioxide is the main cause of human-inducted climate change
  • Deforestation 

Natural causes: 

  • Volcanic activity 
  • Solar output
  • Earth's orbit around the sun

CONSECUENCES of climate change

  • Fresh water shortages
  • Ice is melting which contributes to sea-level rise
    • Number of floods will increase
  • Storms and heatwaves
  • Temperature changes are also affecting wildlife and other species as well

It's hard to say how greatly will the climate change in the future which makes it hard to evaluate the true consequences. 

Climate change in a nutshell

Thanks to National Geographic 

Read the text and watch the video then think about this question: 

What can YOU do about climate change?

+1 vote
2 lessons
Lesson created In 7-9 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  

The relationship between these concepts can oftentimes be explained by human Geography and the stages of development of a country. 
We measure the development of a country with the Human Development Index (HDI). Check out this video on how we measure poverty to understand the HDI a bit better: 

Now, what is the link between poverty, ill-health, high population density etc. and how does this link back to development?
The countries of the world are moving through the same stages of development (called the demographic transition model). According to this model countries with lower stages of development often struggle with high rates of poverty, overpopulation, poor medical care, etc. Luckily, countries are moving towards a higher stage of development, with improved education, medical care and higher standards of living.

To learn more about the demographic transition model and how these concepts are related to each other, check out this video: 


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