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UNITED NATIONS 

  • United Nations is an international organization that was founded in 1945
  • It was founded because the world wanted and needed peace after World War II
  • It took approximately two months to first draft and sign the UN Charter, which created the United Nations
    • The main goal was to prevent another world war
  • Four months after the first conference, the United Nations officially began (24.10.1945)
  • When it was first founded it had 50 member states, today the number of member states is 193
    • All of these member states have agreed to climate action in order to limit global warming

Main goals for the United Nations:

  • Maintain peace and security
  • Give humanitarian assistance 
  • Protect human rights
  • Uphold international laws 
  • Achieve a more sustainable future

The main parts of the United Nations are:

  • The General Assembly
  • The Security Council 
  • The Economic and Social Council
  • The Trusteeship Council
  • The International Court of Justice
  • The UN Secretariat 

Watch this informative video by RMIT University and learn even more! 



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EUROPEAN UNION

History of the EU:

  • From 1950 the European Coal and Steel Community begins to unite European countries politically and economically to secure lasting peace after the World War II
    • Founding countries were France, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands
    • Aim was to end the frequent wars between countries 
  • Treaty of Rome (1957) creates the European Economic Community
  • Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom joined EU in 1973
  • In the late 1970s EU regional policy started to create jobs and infrastructure to poorer areas
  • At the same time the European Parliament increased its influence and started to fight against pollution
  • Greece joined EU in 1981, Spain and Portugal in 1986
  • In the sam year (1986) Single European Act gets signed but doesn't get completed until 1993 with the "four freedoms"
    1. Movement of goods
    2. Movement of services
    3. Movement of people
    4. Movement of money
  • In 1995 Austria, Finland and Sweden joined EU
  • Schengen agreement:
    • People are allowed to travel without having their passports checked 
    • Young people study in other countries with EU support
  • Euro became the official currency in 1999 but for the first years it was "invisible"
    • First coins and banknotes were launched in 2002
  • 10 new countries joined in 2004
    • Two years later in 2007 Bulgaria and Romania joined
  • Treaty of Lisbon (2009)
    • Provides modern institutes
    • More efficient working methods 
  • In 2012 the European Union got the Nobel Peace Prize
  • Croatia joined in 2013 and was the 28th member country
  • Brexit (Britain leaving the EU) in the beginning of 2021 dropped the number of member countries to 27 

EU today:

EU's agenda for the next years is to:

  • Protect citizens and freedoms
  • Develop a strong economic base
  • Build a climate-neutral, green and social Europe
  • Promote European interests and values globally

The European Union explained by CGP Grey:

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NORDIC CO-OPERATION

History on the subject:

  • Throughout history wars and different alliances have been a part of the relations between Nordic countries
    • Roughly about a thousand years ago Nordic people started to come together and form kingdoms and from 1397 to 1521 the kingdoms were united under the Kalmar Union
  • When Gustav Vasa was crowned as the king of Sweden in 1521 the Nordic countries divided for the next 300 years
    • Swedish kingdom claimed Finland and territories around the Baltic Sea
    • Danish kingdom included Norway, Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands
    • These two kingdoms had many wars against each others

Co-operation between the Nordic countries

  • The partnership between Nordic countries involves Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Iceland, Norway, Ă…land, Greenland and the Faroe Islands
  • The roots of Nordic co-operation are as early as the late 19th century, when different organizations started to initiate Nordic partnerships
  • The Nordic Association was founded in Denmark, Sweden and Norway in 1919, Iceland joined in 1922 and Finland in 1924
    • Key factor to a closer co-operation between the Nordic countries
  • The co-operation has deep roots in politics, economics and culture
  • The aim of the co-operation is a strong Nordic voice in the world and in European forums
  • Vision today is to make the Nordic region the most sustainable and integrated region in the world by the year 2030

Watch this video by Nordic Samarbejde / Nordic Co-Operation and learn more about the Nordic region 

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