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Skills in geography

+2 votes
2 lessons
In 4-6 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  

The 7 Continents of Earth.
Access the lesson here.
What is a Continent?
A continent is one of the seven large landmasses on the Earth's surface, surrounded, or mainly surrounded, by sea and usually consisting of various countries.
List of the 7 Continents:
North America
South America,
Australia (together with Oceania).
Challenge yourself:
See how much you remember about the seven continents on Seterra

+1 vote
2 lessons
In 4-6 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  


Urbanization is the movement of an increasing percentage of the population into urban areas.

Access the lesson here, to learn more about urbanization, why it occurs and some consequences of urbanization: https://www.canva.com/design/DAEA5G-AAzQ/xvGSybbqnF0rG7cH__wTmQ/view

+2 votes
3 lessons
In 4-6 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  

The World's Oceans:

The five world oceans are the Pacific Oceanthe Atlantic Oceanthe Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and the Arctic Ocean.

Check out this YouTube video to learn more about each Ocean: 

The Water Cycle:

Ready to learn more about the Water cycle? Check out this lesson: https://www.canva.com/design/DAEA5Y0tpXw/Cq53LbS1XqiNRE3SUBGd1A/view

+3 votes
2 lessons
In 4-6 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  

Our economic growth and development are leading to an increase of environmental damage and risk. Countries are turning to more sustainable ways of economic growth and development to decrease our environmental impact. 

What is Sustainable Development?

Economic development without conducting any harm to the environment or depletion of natural resources. Sustainable development aims to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. 

How do we impact our Environment?

How can you help care for the Environment?

Protecting Our Planet Starts with You

+2 votes
2 lessons
In 4-6 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  


Both resources and energy allow us to flourish on planet Earth. But, what exactly are resources, and why are they so important? Check out this video: 


The simplest definition of energy is "the ability to do work". Energy is how things change and move. It's everywhere around us and takes all sorts of forms. It takes energy to cook food, to drive to school, and to jump in the air. Energy consumption just means how much energy we are using each year to power our houses, factories, businesses and vehicles.

Different forms of Energy
Energy can take a number of different forms. Here are some examples:

  • Chemical - Chemical energy comes from atoms and molecules and how they interact.
  • Electrical - Electrical energy is generated by the movement of electrons.
  • Gravitational - Large objects such as the Earth and the Sun create gravity and gravitational energy.
  • Heat - Heat energy is also called thermal energy. It comes from molecules of different temperatures interacting.
  • Light - Light is called radiant energy. The Earth gets a lot of its energy from the light of the Sun.
  • Motion - Anything that is moving has energy. This is also called kinetic energy.
  • Nuclear - Huge amounts of nuclear energy can be generated by splitting atoms.
  • Potential - Potential energy is energy that is stored. 

Energy is taken from two types of energy source:

  • Renewable energy sources = resources that can be easily replaced or renewed (will not run out – sustainable). These include- Hydro Electric Energy, Wind Energy, Solar energy, Geothermal energy, and Biofuels
  • Non-renewable energy sources= resources that can be used up and cannot be replaced (will run out). These include – Coal energy, Natural Gas energy, Oil energy, and Nuclear energy.

+1 vote
2 lessons
In 4-6 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  

Understanding Earthquakes:

Understanding Volcanoes:

+1 vote
2 lessons
In 4-6 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  

Earth has many different landscapes and landforms. Ready to explore them all? Check out this video.

A landscape is part of the Earth's surface that can be viewed at one time from one place. It consists of the geographic features that mark or are characteristic of, a particular area.


A glacier is a large mass of ice often shaped like a river that flows very slowly, under the force of gravity. Glaciers develop over many years in places where snow has fallen but not melted. Snow is compacted and turns to ice. The weight of the ice means that it starts to slip down mountainsides over time.


The low area of the Earth’s surface between features of elevation (mountains and hills).


Similar to a valley, a canyon is a narrow, deep valley cut by a river. They have very steep sides and some are thousands of feet deep. Smaller valleys of similar appearance are called gorges.

+1 vote
2 lessons
In 7-9 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  

The relationship between these concepts can oftentimes be explained by human Geography and the stages of development of a country. 
We measure the development of a country with the Human Development Index (HDI). Check out this video on how we measure poverty to understand the HDI a bit better: 

Now, what is the link between poverty, ill-health, high population density etc. and how does this link back to development?
The countries of the world are moving through the same stages of development (called the demographic transition model). According to this model countries with lower stages of development often struggle with high rates of poverty, overpopulation, poor medical care, etc. Luckily, countries are moving towards a higher stage of development, with improved education, medical care and higher standards of living.

To learn more about the demographic transition model and how these concepts are related to each other, check out this video: 


+1 vote
2 lessons
In 7-9 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  

What is conflict over natural resources and how can we prevent it?

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2 lessons
In 7-9 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  

Consequences of floods:

A flood occurs when a river bursts its banks and the water spills onto the floodplain of a river. 

Floods can cause damage to homes and possessions, as well as disrupt communities normal way of life. 

Floods can cause:

  • A loss of life: Floods can cause death and injury. People can get trapped in their houses by the quick-rising waters
  • Damage to property: As floodwaters rise they can flow into low-lying properties. The river will be carrying huge amounts of pollution and silt that will destroy floors, walls and any electrical gear.
  • Pollution: Floods will wash chemicals and sewage into the water. The contaminated water will spread quickly over an area – causing public health issues and killing fish.
  • Destruction of habitat: Floods will destroy places where river animals and fish might have breeding grounds. Even slight changes to river temperature and water patterns can upset natural ecosystems.

Consequences of droughts:

  • Droughts endanger lives through thirst, hunger and the spread of diseases. 
  • Reduction in food production. 
  • Droughts and famines have other geographical impacts such as people that migrate to a new home. This can put pressure on resources in neighbouring communities. 

Consequences of earthquakes:

  • Buildings might collapse and homes might be destroyed.
  • People may be killed or injured. 
  • Transport links might be disrupted. 
  • Communication lines might break. 
  • Basic services might be destroyed (electricity and water supply)
  • Shops and businesses might be destroyed. 
  • Economies might slow. 

+1 vote
1 lesson
In 7-9 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  

Glacier: A glacier is a large mass of ice often shaped like a river that flows very slowly, under the force of gravity. Glaciers develop over many years in places where snow has fallen but not melted. Snow is compacted and turns to ice. The weight of the ice means that it starts to slip down mountain sides over time.

Latitude, Longitude and the Equator:

To help locate where a place is in the world, people use imaginary lines:

  • To find out how far north or south a place is, lines of latitude are used. These lines run parallel to the Equator.

  • To find out how far east or west a place is, lines of longitude are used. These lines run from the top of the Earth to the bottom.

  • The Equator is at the centre of the lines of latitude and is at 0° latitude. It divides Earth into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. 

Natural Resources:


No, Antarctica is located in the South. 

0 votes
3 lessons
In 7-9 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  

Important Map Terms: 

Map - A visual representation of the world. Maps provide us with information about or world, including countries, continents and the location of different features and the distance between places. 

Symbols - Pictures, letters and colours that are used to represent something specific on a map. 

Grid - A grid includes a series of crossing lines that create squares or rectangles. These shapes help us to identify areas on maps. 

Scale - Scale helps us to identify how big an area on a map is in reality. A scale might be shown as 1:00 for example, which means that 1 cm on the map represents 100 km in reality. 

Topographic VS Thematic Maps:

Topographic maps provide information on elevation. This refers to how far above sea level a particular area of land is. 

Check out this video on Thematic Maps:


+2 votes
2 lessons
In 7-9 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  

Want to know all about the 7 different continents of our world, including the tallest mountains, cultures, and regions? Check out this short video series created by National Geographic:


North America

South America

Oceans of the world:

  • The Atlantic
  • Pacific
  • Indian 
  • Southern
  • Arctic

+2 votes
1 lesson
In 7-9 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  

Population Distribution:

Population distribution describes the way people are spread across an area. This can be uneven and subject to change. Distribution can be shown on a dot distribution map. However, these can be misleading because they can give the impression that some areas have no people.

Causes and Consequences of inequality:

Inequality means extreme differences between poverty and wealth, as well as in peoples' wellbeing and access to things like jobs, housing and education. Inequalities may occur in:

  • housing provision
  • access to services
  • access to open land
  • safety and security

Causes and Consequences of Migration:

Migration is the movement of people from one place to another.

What causes people to move? 

Consequences of people moving?


Causes and Consequences of Urbanization:

Urbanisation means an increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas compared to rural areas. An urban area is a built-up area such as a town or city. 

As a country industrialised, the number of people living in urban areas tend to increase. People move to urban areas to seek employment and better living conditions. Today, most people live in urban areas, with about 90% of the world's population living in towns and cities. Other causes might include: 

  • Social Factors - better quality of living, education, facilities and business opportunities
  • Modernisation - Better technology, Newer housing and infrastructure, hospital care etc.

Consequences of urbanization include:

  • A loss in biodiversity
  • An increase in inequality
  • An increase in air pollution
  • Overpopulation
  • Increase in traffic, leading to traffic congestion


+3 votes
2 lessons
In 7-9 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  

REASONS for climate change                                      

Human activity such as: 

  • Increased use of fossil fuels (oil, coal and gas)
  • Increasingly intensive agriculture which emits greenhouse gases
    • Carbon dioxide is the main cause of human-inducted climate change
  • Deforestation 

Natural causes: 

  • Volcanic activity 
  • Solar output
  • Earth's orbit around the sun

CONSECUENCES of climate change

  • Fresh water shortages
  • Ice is melting which contributes to sea-level rise
    • Number of floods will increase
  • Storms and heatwaves
  • Temperature changes are also affecting wildlife and other species as well

It's hard to say how greatly will the climate change in the future which makes it hard to evaluate the true consequences. 

Climate change in a nutshell

Thanks to National Geographic 

Read the text and watch the video then think about this question: 

What can YOU do about climate change?

+1 vote
1 lesson
In 7-9 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  

Earth has many different climate zones. The atmospheric circulation system creates Earth's climate zones.
We classify the climates according to the maximum and minimum temperatures and the temperature range. We also take into consideration the total and seasonal distribution of precipitation. 

Check out the different climate zones here:

0 votes
3 lessons
In 7-9 by Tanya van den Berg Guru (6.5k)  

What are goods and how are they produced:

Goods are any items that satisfy human needs and wants. They are material items that you can purchase. Anything that you can find in a grocery store, farmer's market, shopping mall, home improvement shop, or any other store is a good. These might include: fruit; vegetables; cell phones; train tickets; coffee from a coffee shop; etc. 

How is trade patterns changing, and why?

Globalisation is one of the main accelerators of change globally. Check out this video on globalisation and how it is changing the way of production and trade patterns: 

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