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In 7-9 by Nelli Numminen Guru (7.4k)  
  • Revolution is a major and sudden + typically violent alteration in government and in related associations and the structures 
    • Revolutions start when the social climate in a country changes and the political system reacts in a threatening way
  • Aristotle linked the idea of revolutions to many different causes but largely to the desire for social change 
  • Throughout the Middle Ages the countries in Europe did what they could to prevent revolutions and preserve order
    • In the medieval times church maintained the authority 
    • Sometime during the Renaissance however, the concept of revolution changed 
      • People began to believe in change and that it is necessary for the society to progress
  • Greatest revolutions of history are American, English, French, Chinese and Russian revolutions. These didn't only change the system of government but also economic system, social structure and cultural values

Check this informative video by National Geographic and get the most important facts about revolutions!

WHAT IS THE MAIN AIM OF A REVOLUTION? What do the people want to change?



+2 votes
1 lesson
In 7-9 by Gautier Baudry Rockstar (4.8k)  

Understanding biotechnologies

- Biotechnology is the development of technologies and products based on living systems and organisms.

- It is at the crossroads of many disciplines such as engineering, genetics, and biochemistry.

- In its simple form, biotechnologies are about harnessing processes coming from living organisms and using them to make products, for example by using yeasts to make bread or fermentation to make biofuel;

- With the advancement of genetics and chemistry, biotechnologies are also use to make for example vaccines and medicines.

What is biotechnology?

Example of biotechnology: genetic therapy for sickle-cell disease



+2 votes
1 lesson
In 7-9 by Gautier Baudry Rockstar (4.8k)  

What is taxonomy?

- Taxonomy is the science that arranges and groups organisms at different level.

- The basic unit of taxonomy is the species, but organisms are named after both their species and genus name. For example, wolves are Canis lupus

- The ensemble of all the species is called the tree of life.

Taxonomy depends on phylogeny

- At the beginning of life, there was only one cell. All living organisms are issued from that cell.

- Along the history of life, different traits appeared that made some organisms becoming different and ultimately their own species.

- Example of such traits are the appearance of a cell nucleus (Eukaryotes), photosynthesis in plants (Plantae), the chordal spine (Chordata) of animals, and many others.

- The relationship between species depending on their evolutionary history is called phylogeny, which is used for taxonomy (the classification of organisms).

- For example, Birches, Wolves and Salmons are all eukaryotes (they all have a nucleus), but because plants are photosynthetic and animals are not, Birches are in another group than Wolves and Salmons. Wolves and Salmons are chordates (they have a spine) but Salmons lay eggs while Wolves do not... and so on.

You can find the tree of life here



+2 votes
2 lessons
In 7-9 by Nelli Numminen Guru (7.4k)  

CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF THE CHILD

  • Convention on the Rights of a Child is made by the United Nations and it includes all the children under the age of 18
  • The Convention has 54 articles that explain the rights of the children 
  • The Convention has four basic principles: 
    • No discrimination 
    • Paying attention for the benefit of the children
    • The right to live and to evolve 
    • Respecting the views of a child 
  • The Convention on the Rights of a Child is the most ratified human rights treaty
    • It was ratified in 1989

FIVE PARTS ON THE CONVENTION ON THE RIGTHS OF A CHILD:

Article 1:

  • For the purposes of the present Convention, a child means every human being below the age of eighteen years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.

Article 3:

  1. In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be primary consideration.
  2. States Parties undertake to ensure the child such protection and care as is necessary for his or her well-being, taking into account the rights and duties of his or her parents, legal guardians, or other individuals legally responsible for him or her, and to this end shall take all appropriate legislative and administrative measures.
  3. States Parties shall ensure that the institutions, services and facilities responsible for the care or protection of children shall conform with the standards established by competent authorities, particularly in the areas of safety, health, in the number and suitability of their staff, as well as competent supervision.

Article 6:

  1. States Parties recognize that every child has the inherent right to life 
  2. States Parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child 

Article 33:

  • States Parties shall take all appropriate measures, including legislative, administrative, social and educational measures, to protect children from the illicit use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances as defined in the relevant international treaties, and to prevent the use of children in the illicit production and trafficking of such substances. 

Article 39:

  • States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to promote physical and psychological recovery and social reintegration of a child victim of: any form of neglect, exploitation, or abuse; torture or any other form of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment; or armed conflicts. Such recovery and reintegration shall take place in an environment which fosters the health, self-respect and dignity of the child. 

Watch this video by acyoNSW and learn more about your rights as a child! 



+2 votes
1 lesson
In 7-9 by Nelli Numminen Guru (7.4k)  

SOCIAL MEDIA

  • Social media has become a big part of our everyday life 
    • It can be either beneficial or harmful, depending on how you use it
  • Social media creates opportunities to:
    • Keep in touch with friends and family
    • Network and find different career opportunities 
    • Connect with people around the world who has the same interests
    • Share your own thoughts and feelings about life 

REMEMBER THESE WHEN USING SOCIAL MEDIA:

  • Everything that you post will stay on the internet forever even though you might delete it by yourself
    • Always think twice before posting a picture or an opinion on some matter because it might end up somewhere else than where you initially posted it
  • Take time to go thru and read the terms of agreement so that you know what you are signing up for
  • Respect other people's privacy and don't post any pictures without their consent 
  • Use privacy settings and only accept contacts that you know 
  • It is against the law to hack, steal or illegally download other people's pictures or property online
  • One of the most important rules on social media is to take responsibility on your own actions and words
    • Online bullying is a real issue that can harm other people and even lead to a police investigation 

Watch this video by watchwellcast and take notes on how to use social media/the internet safely! 



+2 votes
1 lesson
In 7-9 by Gautier Baudry Rockstar (4.8k)  

Feelings, relationships and sex

- Developing romantic feelings for someone else is a natural part of our lives.

- Romantic relationships are usually considered a psychological need and are an integrant and healthy part of our lives, although its nature varies with individuals.

- Having sexual intercourse with a consenting partner is a natural and healthy part of our life, although its nature varies with individuals.

Consent in romantic relationships and sexual intercourse

- Consent is the notion by which an individual is able to understand and to freely and willingly accept the consequences of an action.

- It is important to make sure that every person involved in a relationship or sexual intercourse are willingly and freely consenting.

- Understanding the consent or non-consent of a person is best reached through showing empathy, patience and understanding.

- In many countries, non-consensual interactions are forbidden and punished by the law.

Developing romantic relationships

- Romantic relationships can be developed by any individual for any other individual, independently of gender, ethnies, identity, condition,...

- The forms and shapes of romantic relationships are specific to individuals.

- To form a healthy relationship, it is important that all persons involved understand the nature of the relationship and agree to it.

Sexual intercourse

- A sexual intercourse comprises all acts and actions meant for sexual pleasure and/or reproduction, either alone or between consenting partners.

- Sexual intercourse should be pleasurable to all persons involved, and for peace of mind it is important to understand the possible outcomes of a sexual intercourse.

- A sexual intercourse between a person with a penis and a person with a vagina can lead to pregnancy. If pregnancy is not wanted, it is important to use effective contraceptive methods such as condoms or contraceptive pills and devices.

- Sexual intercourse with other partners can lead to the transmission of diseases. The best way to avoid sexually transmitted diseases during sexual intercourse is to avoid penetration, or to use a condom on a penis if there is penetration.



+2 votes
2 lessons
In 7-9 by Gautier Baudry Rockstar (4.8k)  

The main body organs

- The body needs all organs in order to function properly.

- The main systems of the body are:

  • The digestive system which contains the stomach and intestine, and extract nutrients and resources from ingested food;
  • The nervous system containing the brain and using the nerves to transfer information transfer between different body parts and the brain, allowing for example to sense and move;
  • The respiratory system containing the lungs, which extract oxygen from the air;
  • The cardiovascular system containing the heart and blood vessel allows the transport of elements such as nutrients, hormones and oxygen all over the body;
  • The reproductive system containing the sex organs like the ovaries and testes and is used for reproduction



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