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In 10-12 by Guru (7.4k)  

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by Guru (7.4k)  


  • The Antiquity is also known as the Ancient Era
    • It started about 3000 BC and lasted approximately to the mid 400 CE
  • Watch these the three videos (all by: National Geographic) below and learn about the important civilizations the Ancient Era




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by Guru (7.4k)  

The Middle Ages - Also known as the Dark Age

  • A period in European history from 500 to about 1500 CE, a period between the fall of the Roman Empire and the beginning of Renaissance
    • The name "Dark Age" came from an Italian poet Petrarch, who believed that the Middle Ages was a dark period because of the loss of classical learning 
  • The Middle Ages are understood as a dynamic period in which the idea of Europe as a distinct cultural unit emerged
  • New forms of political leadership were introduced, people were Christianized and monasticism was established
  • What happened during the Middle Ages:
    • Era of crusades
    • Dramatic growth occurred 
    • Economic and territorial expansion 
    • Demographic and urban growth 
    • Emergence of national identity
    • Concept of University as born
    • Numerous periods was invented 

Short video about the Middle Ages by Margreet de Heer

The Dark Ages explained by CrashCourse

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by Guru (7.4k)  


  • Renaissance (14th century to the 17th century) is French and means "Rebirth"
  • It is a time period in history which followed after the Middle Ages
    • It first started from Florence, Italy and then spread throughout Europe 
  • During Renaissance:
    • People discovered new continents 
    • The decline of the feudal system and growth of commerce
    • Many inventions such as paper, printing, mariner's compass and gunpowder
  • To many people this was the time of great revival of classical learning and wisdom after the Dark Ages
    • More people learned how to read and write which made them more critical towards the church 
  • In 16th century Martin Luther led the Protestant Reformation that caused a split in the Catholic church --> new form on Christianity, Protestantism was born 

Art, Architecture and Science

  • These three were closely linked to one another and an important part of Renaissance
  • Copernicus proposed that it's the sun not the earth that is the center of our solar system 
  • Art during this time was characterized by realism and naturalism

Famous people who lived during Renaissance:

  • Leonardo Da Vinci
  • Nicolaus Copernicus
  • William Shakespeare

End of Renaissance:

  • Demise of the Renaissance was the result of many factors
    • By the end of 15th century, numerous wars had spread the plague to the Italian peninsula which led the Spanish, French and Italian fighting for Italian territories 
    • New trade routes led to economic decline and limited amount of money
    • Counter-Reformation --> countermeasure against the Protestant Reformation and its bold artists
      • In 1545 the Council of Trent established the Roman Inquisition which made humanism and acts against the church punishable by law

Watch this informative video about Renaissance by CrashCourse and learn more!

+2 votes
by Guru (7.4k)  


  • The Enlightenment is also known as "the Age of Reason" because people started to question traditional authority and embraced the idea that humanity could be improved with rational change
  • The roots of the Enlightenment trace back to 1680s England where Isaac Newton published his "Principia Mathematica" and John Locke his "Essay Concerning Human Understanding" 
    • These two provided the scientific, mathematical and philosophical toolkit for the Enlightenment
  • Centre idea of the Enlightenment was that everything in the universe could be rationally demystified and cataloged
  • During the Enlightenment we got many inventions, scientific discoveries, laws, wars and revolutions
    • The American and French Revolutions  were inspired by the ideas of Enlightenment and marked the peak of its influence and also the beginning of its decline
      • French revolution was the culmination of the Enlightenment vision of throwing out old authorities and to remake the society along rational lines 
    • John Locke and French philosopher Pierre Bayle began to speak about the separation of the church and the state 

Watch this video by CrashCourse to get more knowledge about the Enlightenment!

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